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财务管理周期意图清单

 
英文原文摘选:

Idea List for the Financial Management Cycle

(Includes Cash Balances, Investments, Debt, Equity, Related Party Transactions and Interest Income and Expense)
Table of Contents
  I. Understand aspects of the business related to financial management
  II. Understand the accounting policies
  III. Understand the accounting system and control procedure
  IV. Identify key financial statement assertions and other significant assertions
  V. Identify cycle inherent risks and consider inherent risks relating to key assertions
  VI. Consider tile types of misstatements that could occur and assess control risk
  VII. Understand control procedures, assess control risk, identify key control procedures and test key control procedures for certain control risk level assessments
  VIII. Summary of effectiveness tests of key control procedures
  IX. Tests of key control procedures
  X. Design and perform analytical procedures
  XI. Summary of substantive tests of detail
  XII. Substantive tests of detail
  …
  Financial management cycle activities include the issuance of equity or debt, investment in securities or other assets and cash management. The financial management cycle also includes related party transactions.

  VI. Consider the types of misstatements that could occur and assess control risk
  After we identify tile cycle’s inherent risks, we can consider the types of errors that could occur either because a control procedure fails or is not in place. We should consider the types of overstatements or understatement error that are likely to occur given the inherent risks of the cycle.
….
  VII. Understand control procedure, assess control risks, identify key control procedures and testing key control procedures for certain risk level assessments
  Control risk is the risk that material misstatements could occur and not be prevented, detected or corrected on a timely basis by the client’s internal control structure policies and procedures. An understanding of the control structure, including the control environment, accounting system and control procedures, is necessary in order to assess control risk. We may assess control risk at maximum (assuming no control procedures in place) or less than maximum. When we assess control risk at slightly less than maximum we should identify the control procedure and see if it is placed in operation. We do not test the procedures. When our control risk assessment is moderate based on assessment of the control environment and after identifying key control procedures, we test key control procedures by means of active inquiry or tests of controls. Moderate risk means we believe that control procedures will prevent or detect between 10% to 70% of misstatements that will occur (or there is a 30% to 90% chance that control procedures will fail). When our assessment of control risk is low we believe that 60% to 90% of the misstatements that have occurred will be prevented or detected.

  The only difference in assessing control risk at moderate or low is the difference in our preliminary assessment control procedures are somewhat more or less effective. We cannot change our assessment by doing more tests.

  VIII. Summary of tests of key control procedures
  Develop tests of control procedures. Active inquiry procedures are necessary to assess control risk at moderate and should be used when key control procedures for an assertion in a cycle is not documented, for example, segregation of duties. We may use detail test of procedures listed below as tests of control procedures when we assess control risk as moderate or low and have identified and documented the key control procedures of an assertion. When we do not identify and document key control procedures in an assertion the tests of detail can be used as substantive tests of transactions. The audit planning forms document the control risk by cycle and assertion, the key control procedures and whether key control procedures are placed in operation and are functioning. We should test control procedures when we assess control risk as moderate or low, which levels of risk would allow us to reduce our substantive tests.

  IX. Test of key control procedures
  …
  XI. Summary of substantive tests of detail
  Design substantive tests of details considering the tests of control procedures performed at the assessment of control risk, the overall inherent risk and the direction of risk. When possible, combine substantive tests, both within and between cycles. Also consider the extent of reliance placed on related analytical procedures. Determine the nature, timing and extent of the substantive tests and determine whether scopes of the tests are sufficient detect material misstatements. Consider performing these substantive tests:…

翻译文本:

财务管理周期意图清单

(包括现金余额、各种投资、债务、权益、关联方交易和利息收入与费用)
目录
  一、理解与财务管理有关的业务问题
  二、理解会计政策
  三、理解会计制度与控制程序
  四、识别关键财务报表确认和其它重大确认项目
  五、识别周期内在风险、并考虑与关键确认项目有关的内在风险
  六、考虑可能出现的错误陈述类型、并评估控制风险
  七、理解控制程序,评估控制风险,识别关键控制程序,并对某些控制风险等级评估的关键控制程序进行测试
  八、关键控制程序的有效性测试概要
  九、关键控制程序测试
  十、设计并执行分析程序
  十一、细节实质性测试概要
  十二、细节实质性测试
  ……
  财务管理周期的各项活动,包括发行权益或债务,证券或其它资产投资以及现金管理。财务管理周期还包括关联方交易。
……
  六、考虑可能出现的错误陈述类型、并评估控制风险
  我们对财务管理周期的各种内在风险进行识别后,由于要么控制程序不起作用、要么控制程序不到位,所以可以考虑可能出现的错误陈述的类型。在周期内各种内在风险固定的情况下,我们应该考虑可能出现的各种类型的夸大或保守性错误陈述。
  七、理解控制程序,评估控制风险,识别关键控制程序,并对某些控制风险等级评估的关键控制程序进行测试
  控制风险是可能出现重大错误陈述的风险,该重大错误陈述通过客户内部控制结构政策和程序没能及时预防、检测或更正。理解控制结构,包括控制环境、会计制度和控制程序,对于评估控制风险来说是很有必要的。我们可以评估最大控制风险(假如控制程序不到位时存在的控制风险),也可以评估次最大控制风险。如果我们评估稍次的最大控制风险,我们应该识别控制程序,并确定该控制程序是否在起作用。我们不对这些程序进行测试。如果我们的控制风险评估结果依据有关控制环境评估处于中等,那么在识别关键控制程序后,我们就可以通过积极的询问或控制测试,来测试关键的控制程序。中等风险是指,我们相信各种控制程序能够预防或检测出的潜在错误陈述达到10%至70%(换言之,就是控制程序有30%到90%的可能会无效)。当我们评估的结果为控制风险较低时,则表示我们认为已经出现的错误陈述有60%到90%能够预防或检测。
  评估控制风险是中等还是较低,其唯一的差别是我们初步评估各种控制程序是比较有效还是比较无效。即使进行更多的测试,我们也不能改变评估结果。
  八、关键控制程序的有效性测试概要
  制定对控制程序进行的各种测试。积极的询问程序,对于评估中等程度的控制风险很有必要,应该在财务管理周期中确认不存在关键控制程序时使用,例如,进行职务分工等。我们还可以在评估控制风险为中等或低等、且已经识别并将确认的关键控制程序存档时,使用下面列明的详细测试程序,作为控制程序的测试。如果我们在确认中没有识别并将关键控制程序存档,则可以使用细节测试,作为各种交易的实质性测试。各种审计规划表格,按照周期和确认来对控制风险进行存档,并对关键控制程序以及关键控制程序是否到位、是否起作用等进行存档。如果我们评估控制风险为中等或低等,我们就应该对控制程序进行测试,因为在这种程度的风险下,我们可以减少实质性测试。
  九、关键控制程序测试
  ……
  十一、细节实质性测试概要
  设计细节实质性测试,要考虑在进行控制风险评估、总体内在风险和风险方向控制中,对各种控制程序进行测试。可能时,可以在周期内和周期间结合使用各项实质性测试。同时,要考虑依赖有关分析程序的程度。要确定实质性测试的性质、时机和程度,确定测试的范围是否足以检测重大错误陈述;并考虑履行以下这些实质性测试:


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