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美国《1961年对外援助法》

 
英文原文:
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as ’’The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961.’’
PART I

Chapter 1-Policy; Development Assistance Authorizations

  Sec. 101. General Policy.-(a) The Congress finds that fundamental political, economic, and technological changes have resulted in the interdependence of nations. The Congress declares that the individual liberties, economic prosperity, and security of the people of the United States are best sustained and enhanced in a community of nations which respect individual civil and economic rights and freedoms and which work together to use wisely the world’s limited resources in an open and equitable international economic system. Furthermore, the Congress reaffirms the traditional humanitarian ideals of the American people and renews its commitment to assist people in developing countries to eliminate hunger, poverty, illness, and ignorance.
  Therefore, the Congress declares that a principal objective of the foreign policy of the United States is the encouragement and sustained support of the people of developing countries in their efforts to acquire the knowledge and resources essential to development and to build the economic, political, and social institutions which will improve the quality of their lives.
  United States development cooperation policy should emphasize four principal goals:….
*************
  Sec. 620. 785 Prohibition Against Furnishing Assistance.---(a)...(b)...
  (c) 791 No assistance shall be provided under this Act to the government of any country which is indebted to any United States citizen or person for goods or services furnished or ordered where (i) such citizen or person has exhausted available legal remedies, which shall include arbitration, or (ii) the debt is not denied or contested by such government, or (iii) such indebtedness arises under an unconditional guaranty of payment given by such government, or any predecessor government, directly or indirectly, through any controlled entity: Provided, That the President does not find such action contrary to the national security.
(d)….
  (e) (1) The President shall suspend assistance to the government of any country to which assistance is provided under this or any other Act when the government of such country or any government agency or subdivision within such country on or after January 1, 1962-
  (A) has nationalized or expropriated or seized ownership or control of property owned by any United States citizen or by any corporation, partnership, or association not less than 50 per centum beneficially owned by United States citizens, or
  (B) has taken steps to repudiate or nullify existing contracts or agreements with any United States citizen or any corporation, partnership, or association not less than 50 per centum beneficially owned by United States citizens, or
  (C) has imposed or enforced discriminatory taxes or other exactions, or restrictive maintenance or operational conditions, or has taken other actions, which have the effect of nationalizing, expropriating, or otherwise seizing ownership or control of property so owned,and such country, government agency, or government subdivision fails within a reasonable time (not more than six months after such action, or, in the event of a referral to the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States within such period as provided herein, not more than twenty days after the report of the Commission is received) to take appropriate steps, which may include arbitration, to discharge its obligations under international law toward such citizen or entity, including speedy compensation for such property in convertible foreign exchange, equivalent to the full value thereof, as required by international law, or fails to take steps designed to provide relief from such taxes, exactions, or conditions, as the case may be; and such suspension shall continue until the President is satisfied that appropriate steps are being taken, and the provisions of this subsection shall not be waived with respect to any country unless the President determines and certifies that such a waiver is important to the national interests of the United States. Such certification shall be reported immediately to Congress.
  Upon request of the President (within seventy days after such action referred to in subparagraphs (A), (B), or (C) of paragraph (1) of this section), the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission of the United States (established pursuant to Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1954, 68 Stat. 1279) is hereby authorized to evaluate expropriated property, determining the full value of any property nationalized, expropriated, or seized, or subject to discriminatory or other actions as aforesaid, for purposes of this subsection and to render an advisory report to the President within ninety days after such request. Unless authorized by the President, the Commission shall not publish its advisory report except to the citizen or entity owning such property. There is hereby authorized to be appropriated such amount, to remain available until expended, as may be necessary from time to time to enable the Commission to carry out expeditiously its functions under this subsection.
  (2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no court in the United States shall decline on the ground of the federal act of state doctrine to make a determination on the merits giving effect to the principles of international law in a case in which claim of title or other right to property 799 is asserted by any party including a foreign state (or a party claiming through such state) based upon (or traced through) a confiscation or other taking after January 1, 1959, by an act of that state in violation of the principles of international law, including the principles of compensation and the other standards set out in this subsection: Provided, That this subparagraph shall not be applicable (1) in any case in which an act of a foreign state is not contrary to international law or with respect to a claim of title or other right to property acquired pursuant to an irrevocable letter of credit of not more than 180 days duration issued in good faith prior to the time of the confiscation or other taking, or (2) in any case with respect to which the President determines that application of the act of state doctrine is required in that particular case by the foreign policy interests of the United States and a suggestion to this effect is filed on his behalf in that case with the court.800

FOOTNOTES:

1 The short title was added by sec. 111 of the FA Appropriation Act, 1962.
785 22 U.S.C. 2370.
791 Subsec. (c) was amended by sec. 301(d)(2) of the FA Act of 1962. It formerly read as follows:
’’(c) No assistance shall be provided under this Act to the government of any country which is indebted to any United States citizen for goods or services furnished, where such citizen has exhausted available legal remedies and the debt is not denied or contested by such government.’’.
799 Sec. 301(d)(2) of the FA Act of 1965 inserted the words ’’to property’’.
800 The words ’’, or (3) in any case in which the proceedings are commenced after January 1, 1966’’, which appeared at this point, were struck out by sec. 301(d)(2) of the FA Act of 1965.
Sec. 527 of the Foreign Relations Authorization Act, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 (Public Law 103-236; 22 U.S.C. 2370a), however, provided the following:
’’SEC. 527. EXPROPRIATION OF UNITED STATES PROPERTY.
’’(a) PROHIBITION.-None of the funds made available to carry out this Act, the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, or the Arms Export Control Act may be provided to a government or any agency or instrumentality thereof, if the government of such country (other than a country described if subsection (d))-
’’(1) has on or after January 1, 1956-
’’(A) nationalized or expropriated the property of any United States person,
’’(B) repudiated or nullified any contract with any United States person, or
’’(C) taken any other action (such as the imposition of discriminatory taxes or other exactions) which has the effect of seizing ownership or control of the property of any United States person, and
’’(2) has not, within the period specified in subsection (c), either-
’’(A) returned the property,
’’(B) provided adequate and effective compensation for such property in convertible foreign exchange or other mutually acceptable compensation equivalent to the full value thereof, as required by international law,
’’(C) offered a domestic procedure providing prompt, adequate and effective compensation in accordance with international law, or
’’(D) submitted the dispute to arbitration under the rules of the Convention for the Settlement of Investment Disputes or other mutually agreeable binding international arbitration procedure.
’’(b) OTHER ACTIONS.-The President shall instruct the United States Executive Directors of each multilateral development bank and international financial institution to vote against any loan or other utilization of the funds of such bank or institution for the benefit of any country to which assistance is prohibited under subsection (a), unless such assistance is directed specifically to programs which serve the basic human needs of the citizens of that country.
’’(c) PERIOD FOR SETTLEMENT OF CLAIMS.-The period of time described in subsection (a)(2) is the latest of the following-
’’(1) 3 years after the date on which a claim was filed,
’’(2) in the case of a country that has a totalitarian or authoritarian government at the time of the action described in subsection (a)(1), 3 years after the date of installation of a democratically elected government, or
’’(3) 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act.
’’(d) EXCEPTED COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES.-This section shall not apply to any country established by international mandate through the United Nations or to any territory recognized by the United States Government to be in dispute.
’’(e) RESUMPTION OF ASSISTANCE.-A prohibition or termination of assistance under subsection (a) and an instruction to vote against loans under subsection (b) shall cease to be effective when the President certifies in writing to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate that such government has taken one of the steps described in subsection (a)(2).
’’(f) REPORTING REQUIREMENT.-Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act and at the beginning of each fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary of State shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, a report containing the following:
’’(1) A list of every country in which the United States Government is aware that a United States person has an outstanding expropriation claim.
’’(2) The total number of such outstanding expropriation claims made by United States persons against each such country.
’’(3) The period of time in which each such claim has been outstanding.
’’(4) The status of each case and efforts made by the United States Government and the government of the country in which such claim has been made, to take one or more of the steps described in subsection (a)(2).
’’(5) Each project a United States Executive Director voted against as a result of the action described in subsection (b).
’’(g) WAIVER.-The President may waive the prohibitions in subsections (a) and (b) for a country, on an annual basis, if the President determines and so notifies Congress that it is in the national interest to do so.
’’(h) DEFINITIONS.-For the purpose of this section, the term ’’United States person’’ means a United States citizen or corporation, partnership, or association at least 50 percent beneficially owned by United States citizens.’’

《1961年对外援助法》(《公法 87-195》)

第一部分
第1章--政策;发展援助授权

  第101节、一般政策。---(一)美国国会认为,基本政治、经济和技术变化已经使各国之间相互依赖。美国国会宣布,世界各国共同尊重个人的民事与经济权利和自由,在开放、公平的国际经济体系共同合作、并以明智的方法使用世界有限的资源,美国人民的个人自由、经济繁荣和安全才能得到最好的维护和加强。因此,美国国会重申美国人民传统的人道主义理想,并再次强调其承诺,以援助发展中国家人民消除饥饿、贫困、疾病与无知。所以,美国国会宣布,美国对外政策的主要目标是鼓励并持续支持发展中国家人民,努力获得发展急需的知识和资源,并建设经济、政治和社会机构,来提高发展中国家人民的生活水平。
  美国发展合作政策强调以下四个主要目标:
……
  第620节、785提供援助的禁止性规定。---(一) ……(二)***[1981年取消]
  (三)791在下列情形下,本法项下的援助不得提供给因货物或服务供应或订购欠美国人或公民款项的任何国家政府:(1)该人或公民已经穷尽了所有可以利用的法律救济,包括仲裁,或(2)该政府对所欠的债务不予否定或不持异议,或(3)该负债产生于该政府、任何前任政府直接或间接通过其控制的实体提供的无条件担保付款;此时,需要美国总统确认这种不提供援助的行动与美国国家利益不矛盾。
  (四)……
  (五) (1)如果有关政府或政府机关或部门自1962年1月1日起有下列行为,则美国总统应该中止根据本法或任何其他法律向该国政府提供的援助---
  1)对美国公民或公司、合伙、或不少于50%权益为美国公民拥有的组织的财产所有权或控制权进行国有化、征用或没收,或
  2)采取有关措施否定或取消同美国公民或公司、合伙、或不少于50%权益为美国公民拥有的组织之间签定的现有合同或协议,或
  3)施加或执行歧视性税收或其他手段、或限制性维护或运营条件,或采取其他行动,对上述拥有的财产所有权或控制权具有国有化、征用或没收的效果,
  而且该国家、政府机关或政府部门未能在合理的时间内(不超过采取行动后6个月,或在规定时间将有关事项提交美国对外索赔解决委员会时,不超过该委员会接到报告后20天)采取适当措施,包括仲裁等,以解除其根据国际法对该公民或实体承担的责任,包括用可兑换的外币快速补偿国际法要求的有关财产足额价值,或未能采取具体措施,根据具体情况提供有关免除税收、征用费用或有关条件的救济;且该中止应该持续到美国总统对所采取的有关适当措施满意为止。对任何国家不应放弃本小节有关规定的要求,除非美国总统认为并证明该弃权对美国国家利益实属重要。该核准证明应该立即上报国会。
  应美国总统要求(在本节第(1)段第1)、2)或3)小段中提到的行动后七天内),美国对外索赔解决委员会(根据《1954年第一号重组计划》;联邦立法第68条第1279节建立)特此被授权为本小节之目的,对征用的财产进行评估,以确定被国有化、征用或没收或施加前述歧视性或待遇或其他行动的财产的全值,并在美国总统提出要求后90天内,向美国总统提交有关咨询报告。除非经美国总统授权,该委员会不得将咨询报告公布给拥有该财产公民或实体之外的任何人或实体。特此授权向该委员会随时进行必要的拨款,使其可以快速实施本小节项下的职能,该拨款随时可用。
  (2)尽管法律可能会有任何其他相反规定,在一个案件中,如果任何当事方,包括外国(或通过该国提出请求的有关方),因为(或通过追索)该国违反国际法原则(包括本小节规定的补偿原则和其他标准)之行为在1959年1月1日以后没收或以其他方式取得财产,对该财产799的物权或其他财产权提起请求时,美国法院不得因联邦法国家行为主义拒绝作出使国际法原则生效的决定;但是,本小段不适用于以下任何案件:1)外国国家行为与国际法不矛盾,或物权或其他权利请求涉及的财产据以获得的不可撤消信用证在没收或取得该财产前依照诚信的原则开出不超过180天,或2)美国总统确定,在有关特殊情况下,适用国家行为原则符合美国对外政策利益要求,且已经代表美国总统将有关该案件的建议提交法院备案。800

正文脚注:

注785、《美国法典》第22章第2370条。
注791、第(三)小节为《1962年对外援助法》第301(四)(2)小节修改,其以前的陈述是:
"(三)在以下情况下,本法项下的援助不得提供给在货物或服务供应方面欠美国公民款项的任何国家政府:该公民已经穷尽了所有可以利用的法律救济手段,且该政府对所欠的债务不予否定或不持异议。"
注799、《1965年对外援助法》第301(四)(2)小节插入"财产"。
注800、此处原来有",或(3)案件程序于1966年1月1日后开始",后被《1965年对外援助法》第301(四)(2)小节删除。
但是,《1994财年和1995财年对外关系授权法》第527节(《公法103-236》:《美国法典》第22章第2370a条)规定如下:
"第527节、对美国财产的征用。
"(一)禁止。--为实施本法、《1961年对外援助法》或《武器出口管制法》所提供的援助资金,在下列情况下不得提供给一国政府、政府机关或政府机构,该国(第(四)小节中说明的国家除外)政府-
"(1)从1956年1月1日起---
"1)对美国人的财产进行国有化或征用,
"2)否定或取消同美国人签定的合同,或
"3)采取对上述美国人拥有的财产所有权或控制权具有没收效果的任何行动(如施加歧视性税收或其他收费手段),且
"(2)在第(三)小节的时间内,没有-
"1)归还该财产,
"2)根据国际法的要求,用可兑换的外汇对该财产提供充分、有效的补偿,或其他双边可接受的财产足额等值补偿,
"3)根据国际法,提供及时、充分、有效的国内补偿程序,或
"4)将有关争议提交投资争议解决公约项下或其他双边同意的、有约束力的国际仲裁程序项下,依据有关规则进行仲裁。
"(二)其他行动。---美国总统应该指示美国在各多边开发银行和国际金融机构中的美国执行理事,投票反对将该银行或金融机构的资金贷款或以其它方式提供给第(一)小节项下禁止援助的国家利用,除非该援助以特定方式直接用于满足该国公民的基本需要。
"(三)解决争议的期间。--上述第(一)(2)中规定的时间为以下较晚的时间---
"1)有关索赔请求提出后3年,
"2)如果有关国家在根据上述第(一)(1)中规定采取行动时是极权或独裁政府,则为民主选举政府确定之日后3年,或
"3)本法实施后90天。
"(四)例外国家和领土。---本节不适用于通过联合国惊醒国际托管建立的任何争议国家,或美国政府承认的争议领土。
"(五)恢复援助。--在美国总统以书面形式向众议院议长或参议院对外关系委员会证明该国政府已经采取上述第(一)(2)小节中规定的任何措施后,第(一)小节项下的禁止或终止援助及第(二)小节项下的投票反对贷款之规定应立即停止生效。
"(六)报告要求。---在本法实施后90天内及其后每财政年度开始,国务卿应该向众议院议长或参议院对外关系委员会转交报告,报告包含:
"(1)美国政府知道的、对美国人存在未解决征用索赔的国家名单。
"(2) 美国人对每一国家提起的未解决征用索赔请求的总金额。
"(3)各未解决索赔持续的时间。
"(4)各索赔案件的状况及美国政府和索赔所在国政府为采取上述第(一)(2)小节规定的措施所做的努力。
"(5)美国在各国际机构的执行理事因上述第(二)小节中采取的行动,投票进行反对的各项目。
"(七)弃权。---如果美国总统确定并如实通知美国国会,证明符合美国国家利益,美国总统可以每年就各国放弃第(一)小节和第(二)小节中规定的各项禁止。
"(八)定义。---在本节项下,"美国人"指美国公民或公司、合伙,或不少于50%权益为美国公民拥有的组织。"



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